Monday, October 15, 2018

Can I Use Baseball Player's Image in Book on Batting?

Dear Rich: I'm writing an educational book teaching techniques on how to hit a baseball,  using images of professional baseball players showing their swings. Are releases or consents required from each of the players to use their likeness? 
No, you probably don't need permission from the players to use their image but you will need permission from the copyright owners of the images you are using.
The right of publicity. The right of publicity gives individuals the ability to stop the unauthorized commercial use of their likeness or personna. The right of publicity typically does not prevent editorial or informational uses, only commercial uses. For example Michael Jordan could prevent the unauthorized use of his likeness in a supermarket advertisement, but James Brown could not halt the sale of James Brown images by Corbis, a stock photo company that provided images for editorial uses. As long as you avoid creating the impression that the baseball players endorse your book -- that is, you don't use the player's likeness in the ads or on the cover of the book -- you should not have any right of publicity issues.
Copyright permissions. What's the source for your photographs? If you've been grabbing screenshots from the Internet, you may run into a problem if the copyright owner sees your book. That's because most baseball imagery from the past fifty years is still protected by copyright. If you've been operating with pictures from fee-based stock photos services such as Getty, AP Images, or MLB, you should be fine.
P.S. Don't forget trademarks. If prudence is your thing, avoid MLB references in ads or on the cover of your book.

Tuesday, October 9, 2018

Whistleblower Wants to Blow Off NDA

Dear Rich: Does an NDA (nondisclosure agreement) prevent me from reporting illegal activity at work?
A whistleblower -- an employee who has a reasonable belief that an employer is violating the law and who reports the violation -- is often protected from retaliation by a patchwork of whistleblower laws. In some cases, these laws are aimed at specific employees -- for example, federal employees, military personnel, and employees of companies regulated by federal agencies. In other cases, when whistleblowing involves disclosure of trade secrets, and the employee has signed an NDA (nondisclosure agreement), federal and most state laws grant immunity to the whistleblower for violation of the NDA. In one case, a court ordered a company to revise its NDA to include a clause recognizing whistleblower rights. In addition, some companies have internal whistleblower reporting procedures that may have to be followed. For all these reasons, and because of the risks involved in whistleblowing, an attorney's advice is essential.

Monday, October 1, 2018

How Does Landlord Legally Remove Mural?

pre-historic Lescaux cave drawings 
Dear Rich: I own a building and the previous owner had commissioned an artist to paint a mural with maritime themes. The new tenant doesn't want to keep the mural. I was told by another landlord that there is a law to follow before getting rid of a mural. What's the correct legal procedure? 
Assuming the mural was created after December 1, 1990 and is recognized as having “artistic merit” or “some level of local notoriety," or is of “recognized stature” as an artistic work, the mural cannot be destroyed without properly notifying the artist. This is based on the federal Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA) and is true regardless of whether the artist owns copyright or whether the artwork is finished. Under VARA, the property owner must give the artist 90 days notice. This article details what happens in the real world and explains that the landlord's primary responsibility is to "give notice at the artist’s last-known address and wait 90 days for the artist to remove [the artwork] at his own expense." A few states have art preservation laws as well. The California Art Preservation Act (CAPA) is often used in combination with VARA lawsuits. For example, when a building owner painted over a famous L.A. mural without first providing notice as required under California law, the artist sued under the California and federal laws and recovered 1.1 million.

Monday, September 24, 2018

Sony Complains About Bach Soundtrack Music

Dear Rich: I am an animation student working on a short film that uses Bach's Unaccompanied Cello Suite 1 Prelude as a background audio track. The Bach music track is nine minutes long, edited down to 90 seconds. Since Bach was a composer from the 1700s, I figured I wouldn't be facing copyright claims, but upon posting it to YouTube, I received a copyright claim from Sony Music Entertainment on behalf of Sony Classical. I planned on sending my short to a student film festival.
Two copyrights are associated with musical recordings: the "musical composition" copyright for creating the music (what would have been Bach's copyright); and the "sound recording" copyright for the audio recording and arrangement (Sony's copyright). Although all of Bach's musical compositions including Cello Suite 1 Prelude are in the public domain, some of the recordings are protected. Apparently YouTube's Content ID police tracked down your use. 
Getting "master use" rights from Sony for a student film may be difficult, expensive, or impossible. You can start by contacting Sony Music Licensing. If that doesn't work, here are three other choices.
Stock music version. The easiest solution is to license a stock music version of the piece. Companies such as feature multiple versions for $20 to $30. Run a Google search to find other Creative Commons or public domain versions of the cello suite.
Fair use. You could respond to the YouTube copyright claim by claiming fair use. However, if Sony disputes your fair use argument, you may have to make your case in federal court. Also, there could be a problem entering festivals because you may have to warranty that your movie contains no infringing material. Festival directors may not appreciate the fair use analysis.
The semitone/transpose hack. There are anecdotal reports that transposing the audio by a semitone or speeding it up slightly can prevent Content I.D. from catching infringing uses. (There are contrary indications as well.) In any case, it's still infringement.
For your FYI Dept. There was no copyright law in Germany during Bach's life, and according to some scholars, the composer allegedly took advantage of that fact.

Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Mom Wants Tax Loss From Daughter's Recording

Many moms have encouraged their pop star daughters' success
Dear Rich: I'm a CPA and I can’t find much information on how a parent of a minor should structure a business with their child. My daughter is a 16-year-old singer/songwriter and she is recording her first EP. Obviously, I am paying for everything. I can’t decide whether an LLC is best and if I did that how would I do the ownership. I’d love to get the tax loss on my tax return.
Your daughter's lucky to have a savvy mom who recognizes the importance of managing her music finances. If the money you spend on your daughter's business exceeds your daughter's income for the year, your business incurs a loss. There are a few ways to address your losses:
Sole proprietor (You own the business). [Pros: Easy to create and manage. Cons: No limitation on liability, only suitable for a single owner.] Claiming the loss as a sole proprietor as a "Schedule C" business requires the least paperwork. You create a business to promote your daughter's music and as sole owner, you file a Schedule C with your Form 1040. That allows you to deduct your music business losses against regular income. There are some caveats, as you probably know, the main one being the 3-out-of-5 year rule. You may want to sign an agreement with your daughter compensating you when she begins making money from music performances or recording.
General partnership (You and your daughter own the business). [Pros: Easy to create and manage. Cons: No limitation on liability, each partner is liable for other partner's actions.] If you want to own the business with your daughter, you can form a general partnership. You don't have to register your partnership with the state and you don't need a written partnership agreement although it is helpful for documenting the percentage of ownership. A partnership does not pay taxes, but it must complete and file a tax return (Form 1065, called an “informational return”) and each partner also receives a Schedule K-1, which contains the relevant profit or loss information. Based on the information in the K-1 form, the partners declare the loss (or profit) on their individual 1040 tax returns using a Schedule E. Like a sole proprietorship, you can deduct the partnership loss against regular income.
LLC (You -- or you and your daughter -- own the business). [Pros: Limits personal liability. Cons: Must register with the state; fees required for formation (and in most states, owners must pay annual maintenance fees).] An LLC reduces personal liability, a factor which may not be of great importance at this point in your daughter's career. Tax forms for an LLC are prepared in the same way as they are for a sole proprietorship (as in the case of a 1-person LLC) or partnership (in the case of an LLC with two or more members). Because of the expenses of forming an LLC, we'd suggest waiting until your daughter has achieved some measure of success with downloads or bookings.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Coach and Player Interview Release

Dear Rich: I am interviewing members of a high school team and their coaches for a book. I have a release agreement for players but not for the high school coach. How should I adapt the release?
A signed release (as we explain here) should serve two purposes: the subject consents to use of interview statements, and the subject releases you (and your publisher) from being sued for libel, invasion of privacy, or copyright infringement (since the speaker’s words may be copyrightable).
Player v. coach. There shouldn't be a substantive difference between a player's release and a coach's release except for the "parental consent" provision that you can use for players under the age of majority (18 in most states). We've posted a sample interview release at the Stanford Fair Use site that includes an optional "parental consent" provision. (We've written about parental consents here and here).

Thursday, September 13, 2018

Private Facts

Dear Rich: I'm thinking of doing a podcast where people share their personal stories of struggle and triumph, which in many cases might include private facts. In your podcasting course, you mention that it's not okay to share private facts, even if they are true. What can I do to minimize that concern? 
When potentially embarrassing information is disclosed about an individual without relation to a legitimate public concern it may give rise to a claim of invasion of privacy. For example, wrestler Hulk Hogan sued Gawker for publishing sex tapes.
The claim. The Reporter's Committee has summarized the elements of a private-facts invasion of privacy claim: (1) the information is so personal and intimate that its disclosure would offend a reasonable person, even if the information is true; (2) the information is not generally known to the public; (3) the information is not newsworthy; and (4) the disclosure of the information is widely communicated. You can find summaries of a few lawsuits at the Digital Media Law Project.
Limiting liability. Your interview subjects can safely disclose any facts about themselves, for example, "I used to shoplift." But you would want to avoid identifying others involved, for example, "I used to shoplift with my cousin, Mark." You're okay disclosing private facts about a dead person as the dead have no privacy. You may also defend against a claim by demonstrating that your podcast is not "widely communicated," that the information is newsworthy, or that the information is generally known (for example, it's a matter of public record). If your podcast has a corporate affiliation or you've indemnified the sponsors, you should take a conservative approach as injured parties tend to pursue defendants with deep pockets (Although sometimes the injured parties are bankrolled by equally deep pockets).

Monday, September 10, 2018

Can We Modify "Edelweiss" for Prison Retreat?

Dear Rich: My church group travels to prisons to conduct retreats for inmates.  We'd like to use the song Edelweiss, but with different words.  Would this be okay?
Many music lovers believe that "Edelweiss" is an Austrian folk song and that it was included in the Sound of Music to add cultural authenticity. However, the song was co-written in 1959 by Rodgers and Hammerstein (their last song before Hammerstein's death). The song is still protected by copyright. To seek permission, you should contact Concord Music publishers. Under copyright law, altering song lyrics requires permission unless excused by fair use (an issue which is difficult to predict and expensive to litigate). As a practical matter, you're probably not going to run into problems with a "don't ask - don't tell" approach as the copyright owner may not want to bother chasing after a church group for this type of infringement.

Monday, October 9, 2017

Fail to Register Song - Lose Copyright?

Dear Rich: I read that the government is planning a song database and songwriters who don't register will lose all copyrights. Can you explain?
The Transparency in Music Licensing and Ownership Act (TMLOA) is a proposed law that, should it be enacted, would create a song database run by the Copyright Office. Supposedly, the database would make it easier to locate the song owner or PRO. Note:  A song owner does not have to register copyright to provide information to the TMLOA database.
Failing to register. A song owner who fails to register will not lose copyright. The "punishment" for not registering is that if the song owner sues a store, restaurant, web radio, or other industries mentioned in the TMLOA, the song owner can only collect the actual damages, not the statutory damages or attorney fees. The underlying effect of the proposed law would be to discourage lawsuits against various industries. The TMLOA is not considered particularly favorable to song owners, and has been characterized as "an all-stick, no-carrot deal."
Bottom line dept. A few things to keep in mind: (1) ASCAP and BMI are cooperating on their own publicly accessible database in order to discourage passage of this legislation. (2) Regardless whether the legislation passes, any song owner who doesn't file for copyright before infringement occurs, cannot collect statutory damages. (3) Considering the track record for proposed copyright legislation, the cost and technology required, as well as the rumors spreading about the TMLOA, the odds disfavor passage of this partisan business legislation.

Thursday, September 7, 2017

Using Midi Music From a Video Game Cartridge

Dear Rich: I want to know if it is considered sampling when you record sound coming from a synthesizer that is playing electronic note data stored on a memory chip. Technically when you play an NES game (80s video game system), the music that is playing is not pre-recorded. It is actually played "live" from musical note data on the game cartridge (gameplay triggers a MIDI pattern) in the console into the internal synthesizer. When I record synthesized sounds for the purpose of using them in new music, would it count as a sample or a cover? 
When MIDI code triggers a synthesizer, it's similar to a piano roll triggering a player piano. In both cases, music written by a human is programmed to be played by a machine. Whenever a human creates an original fixed work (the code is fixed on the game cartridge), it's protected by copyright. In order to record, remix, or repurpose the NES/MIDI melodies or themes, copyright law requires that you get permission from the composition's owner -- either Nintendo, the game company, or in rare situations, the composer. Unless the music has been released on CD or authorized downloads such as MP3s, you would not use the compulsory mechanical license used for cover songs because that only applies to compositions that have been released on sound recordings (not video games or movies). Sample licensing usually includes two licenses, one for the composition, the other for the recorded performance. You wouldn't need the license for the recorded performance (aka the master recording).
What if you don't get permission? Failing to acquire permission won't matter if the copyright owner never learns of your use (a good possibility unless your track goes viral). And even if the owner does learn of your work, the owner may not want to hassle you for financial or publicity reasons. The owner may be most likely to care if you use your music in a video game or movie.
Permission may not be needed. Authorization is not needed if your sampling is excused as a fair use, determined by the four fair use factors. Your use differs from the original purpose of the music -- to enhance the gameplay experience. So, that's transformative (and in your favor). Another fair use factor is how much material you have used. The less you sample, the less you loop, and the less that the song is built around the loop, the stronger the fair use argument. Still, as we always warn: Fair use can only be used as a defense to copyright infringement. That is, you must already be in court. Also, permission might not be necessary if the MIDI composition is not original (for example based on folk music) or is so simple the pattern is considered an essential building block of music composition (for example, the arpeggio associated with boogie-woogie piano). Again, like fair use, these are defenses raised at trial.

Sunday, August 27, 2017

Can I Use Promo Photos from The Virginian?

Dear Rich: I was one of the co-stars in The Virginian TV series and a friend who is creating a Wiki page for me (about to publish my first novel) and asked if the publicity photos taken of me back in the mid-60s were my property or had the copyright to them expired. I know they aren't my property, but don't know about expired copyrights and wondered if you could shed some light on whether I need to contact NBC for use of the photos on Wiki?
We can't say for sure who owns the rights to The Virginian's publicity photos, but if they're like many other publicity photos from that time (The Virginian ran from 1962-1971), there's a good possibility that they're in the public domain.
The Wind and the Wizard.  Works published before March 1, 1989, were required to include copyright notice so if the Virginian's publicity stills were distributed without a notice (the word "copyright" or "©" and the name of the owner), you're free to use them. It wasn't uncommon for stills to lack notice.
"An issue of recurring application is publicity photos for motion pictures from the 1920's through 1970's. The films themselves from that era were routinely protected as validly noticed and registered works; but much less care was typically exercised during production and in the publicity office. (1-4 Nimmer on Copyright § 4.13[A][3].)
In some situations, the lack of notice might have been deliberate. A notice might have discouraged reproductions and the whole point of these 8 x 10 glossies was to get publicity. In one case that arose over the use of posters and promo photos from the films The Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind, the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the materials entered the public domain when they were distributed without a copyright notice.
Before 1964?  If any of the stills were distributed before 1964 it's likely they entered the public domain. Works published before 1964 had to be renewed and only a small percentage (estimated to be less than11%) met that requirement.
If it is still under copyright ... there are a few things to consider:
  • Who owns the copyright? It's probably either NBC or the production company that created the show (or an assignee of either of the two). It's possible but unlikely that the rights for promo photos were transferred to a third party stock photo house such as Getty. That's easy enough to check using Google's Reverse Image Search
  • Will the copyright owner learn of your use, and if so, will they care? If a reverse image search confirms several unauthorized uses, that may indicate that either (1) the copyright owner is not trolling the web for old promo photos, or (2) the copyright owner doesn't care about those reproductions. If the owner of the photos also owns rights to the TV series, it wouldn't be good publicity to go after a former star of the show while the show is still in syndication.
  • Does your posting of the picture constitute fair use? Based on the four fair use factors, we think you have a strong fair use argument. However, as we always warn, fair use is a defense made when the case is being litigated --  already an expensive proposition.

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Can Trader Joe's Stop My Book?

Dear Rich: I wrote an 84-page culinary history book proposing that Trader Joe's changed the way America eats. I self-published it recently (as it is their 50th anniversary this year.) The book analyzes a March 1982 flyer, which TJ's had mailed to our house. I scanned the flyer and cut up the food descriptions, then organized them into types of food to provide commentary on food "then and now" as well as commentary on the writing in the flyer as the company encouraged people to discover new foods. There are multiple disclaimers on the book that this was not published by TJ's, and the text of the book is all positive. Once I published the book on Amazon, they stated I did not have the right to use the flyer images. Is this fair use? The illustrations and artwork are all original. There is no copyright statement on the flyer! Only an (R) to trademark the flyer name of "Insider Report."
We've reviewed your book and we're not sure why the company is objecting.
No copyright, no cry. We believe that the failure to include copyright notice placed the flyer into the public domain, making it available for anyone to use. For works published before March 1989, authorized publication without notice typically doomed works, unless excused. (By the way, the U.S. was the only country following this rule.) Even if the flyer were not in the public domain, you have one of the stronger cases for fair use that has crossed the Dear Rich Staff's desk. Only one of the four fair use factors -- the amount and substantiality of the portion taken -- weighs against you. Otherwise, your reproduction of this 35-year old advertisement is highly transformative and should not deprive the $13-billion-a-year chain of any potential market share.
Trademark rights. A company can object if its trademark is used in a manner that confuses consumers as to source --  for example, consumers believe your book is sponsored or authorized by Trader Joe's. This is unlikely considering your prominent disclaimer and your failure to include the company's distinctive lettering or logos. Further, as we've written before, the use of a company's trademark is permitted for editorial purposes, which is clearly the case here. We also don't think there's any trademark dilution.
Bottom Line Dept. It's difficult to understand why the grocery chain is objecting to your book, especially considering how TJ-positive it is. We can only chalk it up to too much Cookie Butter.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Can We Get Patent Rights Back From Our Employer?

Dear Rich: Almost two years ago I had an idea and with two other guys that I worked with. We developed a product completely outside of work (none of our jobs were in hardware design etc.). We took almost a year to get the product right, but at the end, we had 10 prototypes created and decided to let our boss know about it as he could benefit from it and we could benefit from his funding us. We came to a verbal agreement that he would fund our further development and that we could use time/space at work to further work on it. He would loan us funding for inventory and circuit changes etc. In return, we would give his company exclusivity for one year before we sell it publicly. That would give him the advantage in the market and after the year we would also give him favored nations pricing. He said he would pay for the patent and wanted us to assign it to him as insurance that we would pay off the debt to him. Once we did that, he would assign it back over to us (it did sound strange but we trusted him). We did try to get our agreement in writing. We have various emails and instant messages with him and the point of contact he wanted us to brief. In hindsight, it seems he was stalling because he recently sold the company and is claiming that we never had an agreement or that since we assigned it to him we don't own anything. But we were never compensated and would never have assigned without the agreement we came to. So, in our minds, we wondered whether it was an assignment based on fraud or was unconscionable? Why would we assign without getting anything at all? Is there anything we can do?
Unfortunately, like many inventors, you've lost control of your invention. To get the rights back, you need to (1) convince your employer to assign the rights back to you (through negotiation or litigation), or (2) convince a judge to invalidate the patent assignment. This may be difficult (and expensive). Note: your employer has only prospective rights. That is, there are no patent rights until a patent is granted.
The Assignment. You and your co-inventors signed a written assignment transferring the patent application for "good and valuable consideration, receipt of which is hereby acknowledged." That document was recorded at the USPTO and your employer subsequently transferred the patent from a corporation to an LLC. Assignments are presumed to be valid
Was the assignment fraudulent or unconscionable? Fraud, also known as misrepresentation, occurs when a false statement is made upon which another party justifiably relies, resulting in damage. In other words, if you can prove that your employer lied to you (or concealed the truth) and you had reason to believe the lie and were damaged, a court may invalidate the assignment. (Damage may be difficult to prove because a patent hasn't yet been granted.) A contract also won’t be enforced if it is unconscionable or grossly unfair. This almost always occurs in situations where the bargaining power is severely imbalanced and the party with more power takes advantage by forcing unfair conditions, clauses, or waivers on the other party. Fraud is often successful as a contract defense; unconscionability is not as successful.
The employment relationship. Further complicating your situation is your relationship with the employer. Ownership rules -- "employed to invent" and "shop rights" -- are more difficult to sort out if (1) the employer funds development, (2) the employee works on the invention on the job, or (3) the employee uses company facilities. Another issue is whether the invention is something that is related to the employer’s business or actual or anticipated research or development.
What to do? We suggest you retain a patent attorney to analyze the situation, and if necessary, apply pressure on your former employer to work out a solution. We doubt whether you want to bear the cost of patent litigation, so be prepared to compromise. You may be able to save on costs by using the services of an attorney connected with California Lawyers for the Arts.

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Should I Submit Fabric Designs to Vida?

Dear Rich: I built my business on printing my designs on fabric and making stuff. Now there's a handy service (VIDA) that makes stuff with your uploaded design and sells it to others. That makes it easier. I am just leery of any "catches." Can you look at the licensing agreement?
VIDA is a socially responsible e-commerce company, launched in 2014, that connects designers with manufacturers around the world and sells the resulting products at its site. Artists and designers submit original fabric designs which, if accepted, are converted to fabric and used for apparel and housewares merchandise. The designer receives a 10% royalty for each sale.
Nonexclusive and Exclusive Licenses. According to Vida's Designer's Submission and Licensing Agreement, by submitting your designs, you give Vida a nonexclusive license to reproduce  your design primarily for marketing and promotional purposes.  Once an order is made, you give Vida exclusive rights to sell your design in the designated categories (classes of goods that you selected when you submitted your design). (Here's an overview of the merchandise licensing process.)
How does Vida's license stack up? 
  • Royalty -  Artists receive 10% of net revenue (gross revenue minus discounts, shipping and similar expenses). Fabric design royalties typically range between 2 and 10%. 
  • Length of licenses -  You can terminate the nonexclusive license thirty days after providing notice. You can terminate the exclusive license within one year after providing notice. Most fabric licenses are for 1-3 years with one year renewable terms.
  • Limitations - The exclusive license is limited to the designated categories that you selected when you submitted your design. If you don't want Vida to have exclusive rights for certain goods, don't select them as designated categories.
  • Reliability of the licensee - The company appears to be well-funded and has been around for almost three years (a good sign for a start up). 
Though the agreement is relatively friendly to artists, there are some details we are not wild about -- for example, the ability of Vida to freely assign your exclusive rights. You can compare Vida's agreement with a model license agreement and explanation.

Monday, June 5, 2017

Acquiring Rights From Co-Author

Dear Rich: Currently, my story is unpublished because I had a writing partner who was working on the book with me. Unfortunately, he has quit the project, but I would still like to continue it and see it towards publishing. What are my steps in signing away his portion of the story and giving me the rights? What are the documents he'll need to sign and how may I get those?
The document you'll need is an assignment of copyright, which is a permanent transfer of rights. It must be in writing (not an oral agreement).
Basic assignment. Below, we provide a very basic copyright assignment that should work for you. (For more sophisticated assignments, see our Getting Permission book.) Your co-author is the "Assignor" and you are the "Assignee." Only the Assignor needs to sign the assignment agreement. If you are paying for these rights, you should acknowledge your payments to your co-author somewhere in the agreement.
What if you signed a co-writer agreement? If you have a written co-authorship agreement (sometimes known as a co-writer or co-ownership agreement), you may have to follow the requirements of that agreement as to resolving disputes or other co-ownership issues.

Assignment of Copyright By Co-Owner

I, _________________________ (“Assignor”), am co-owner of the work entitled ______________ (the “Work”) and described as follows: _______ _____________________________________. For consideration which I acknowledge,  I assign to ______________________ (“Assignee”) and Assignee’s heirs and assigns all of my right, title, and interest in the copyright to the Work and all renewals and extensions of the copyright that may be secured under the laws of the United States of America and any other countries, as such may now or later be in effect. I agree to cooperate with Assignee and to execute and deliver all papers as may be necessary to vest all rights to the Work.

Signature of Assignor


Saturday, May 27, 2017

Can I Use Couture Photos for Wikipedia Entry?

Lace Baby Doll Dress with Flower and Bow

Dear Rich: My father was a photographer who at times worked for newspapers and free-lance for himself. He died in 1972 and the works in question were taken in 1957 and the early 1960s, none of which were copy-written. I have inherited his prints and negatives. He took publicity pictures of the works of dress designer George Halley, of whom I have created a Wikipedia entry. I would like to enter my father's works that he owned (not the newspaper work) in the Commons and then link to them from the article as public domain work.
If the photos were published before 1964, they are probably in the public domain and free for anyone to use. That's because works published before 1964 had to be renewed and we're guessing that your father's photos were not renewed, (less than 15% of copyrighted works were). BTW, a photo is "published" when it is made available to the public on an unrestricted basis -- for example, if the photos were reproduced in a magazine or newspaper.
If the photos were not published ... In that case, the photos are protected under copyright until 2042 (70 years after your father's death). Assuming (1) you inherited the copyrights upon your father's death, and (2) your father didn't transfer copyright in the photos under a work for hire agreement, you would control copyright in the photos. As copyright owner you could make them available under a Creative Commons license and reproduce them at Wikipedia. BTW, a CC license doesn't place the work in the public domain (as we explain here). However, Creative Commons can help you make your work public domain if that is your intention.

Saturday, May 13, 2017

Can We Use Ancestry and DNA Information in Book?

19th Century imagery used by abolitionist organizations in
 their efforts to turn northern Americans against slavery. 
I’m helping two authors with a manuscript about their experiences researching their ancestors who were slaves. So they go back to the slave period and continue up to present day. I am unclear about the legal rights associated with certain material including: (1) publication of information found in public records, (2) publication of information from church records, historical society records, family bibles, etc. (3) publication of information gained through personal communication, other family members, community members, or fellow members, or others doing family research, (4) publication of information about DNA test result sharing on type sites. (The information is related to finding other relatives.) (5) publication of family photos taken by family/friends, (6) publication of information from personal communications, informal interviews. Relatives are named and identifiable. So their contemporary descendants can identify their ancestors. I am thinking they will want to inform family members, prior to publication, about the inclusion of information/photos in their forthcoming publication that relate to them.
There are sometimes moral and ethical issues when you start digging up the roots of the family tree. (Do you really want the world to know that your mother's grandfather was charged with indecent exposure?) As for legal concerns, here are four questions to consider:

  • Are you violating the right to privacy? Invasion of privacy can occur when private or embarrassing facts are disclosed about a living individual without relation to a legitimate public concern. This is referred to as "Disclosure of Private Facts." Dead people do not have a right to privacy. 
  • Have you fact checked any statements that could cause damage to a person's reputation? False statements can give rise to libel/defamation claims. For example, you falsely claim that a relative was born out of wedlock. As with privacy, the dead cannot be defamed.
  • Are you violating copyright law? Copyright doesn't protect facts or ideas so you'll have no problems publishing facts found in public records, culled from historical and church records, or provided by an interview subject. Copyright doesn't protect unpublished works whose authors died before 1947 or published works that were published before 1923. You can obtain more details on copyright expiration at the Cornell website. If you interview someone and want to use more than facts -- for example several paragraphs of text -- it's usually best to use an interview release. If you know who holds copyright on a copyrighted photo it's prudent to obtain a permission agreement. You do not need a photo release from the people pictured in the photos. Finally, if challenged, you have fair use as a possible defense. 
  • Do you have permission to reproduce DNA results? If the DNA test taker consents to publication, you are safe publishing DNA test results. Sites like have privacy policies that allow you to reproduce your test results.

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Lyric Writer Wants to License Song

Felice and Boudreaux Bryant,
cowriters of Bye Bye Love, Wake Up
Little Susie, All I Have to Do Is Dream,
Rocky Top, and other great hits

Dear Rich: I write song lyrics and about three years ago collaborated by email with a composer. He sent me a musical composition that I have since written lyrics to and would like to pitch for a TV ad campaign and CD production. Unfortunately, I get no response from email and Soundcloud page from composer is inactive. Can I use music legally or do I have to have written permission? Can't think of any other ways to contact person to get authorization. 
It sounds as if you and the composer -- like Felice and Boudreaux (left) -- intended to combine words and music into "inseparable or interdependent parts." That makes you and the composer joint copyright owners of the song.
Rights of joint owners. With one exception (see below), joint copyright owners can separately grant permission (a license) for someone to use the song, provided that each writer shares the income with the others. If the writers have not agreed on the percentages, courts often start with the presumption that all songwriters contributed equally. Because you cannot locate the composer, you should put aside the composer's share of any income as a demonstration of your good faith.
First authorization of song. There's one question that's unresolved: Do all cowriters have to consent to the first release of the song? We think so because the first release makes the song available for anyone who pays a fee to record the song. Keep in mind that others may disagree because there is no explicit requirement in copyright law that all writers agree to first release. If you've used best efforts to locate the composer and you've documented your efforts, you may be better served disregarding our advice in this situation.

Friday, March 31, 2017

Pre-1978 Film Restoration and Copyright

Dear Rich: I'm working on a project digitizing and restoring various films, all of which were released before 1978. (a) Some films have a copyright notice such as “Copyright 19xx John Smith” notice in the credits. Is the copyright good for 28 years? (b) What happens if a work has a notice such as “Copyright 19xx John Smith” but was never registered? Can someone else other than the original creator or transferee step forward and file a copyright claim before the 28th year ends? (c) If a work did not have a notice and wasn't registered as above, can someone (original owner, or other) come forward before the 28th year ends and files a new copyright on it? (d) If a work has a “Copyright 19xx” notice in the credits but no name or entity, is the copyright valid?
A film that is published before 1978 is subject to the Copyright Act of 1909. That copyright law had certain restrictions and formalities that are not included in the current act, three of which are relevant to your questions.
  • Films published pre-1978 without copyright notice are probably in the public domain. 
  • Films published between 1923 and 1964, that were not renewed 28 years after publication are in the public domain. 
  • Just because a pre-1978 film falls into the public doesn't mean that all of the elements of the film -- for example, soundtracks or underlying story -- are also in the public domain.
Registration or Renewal? Except in certain cases, registration was not a requirement of copyright under the 1909 Act. Renewal, however, was a condition of continued protection. The 1909 Act provided for an initial term of 28 years, and if renewed, a second 28-year term. It is estimated that less than 15% (see fn. 8) of works were renewed. (You can check renewal records for more information.) Renewal was not required for works published after 1963; it was automatic. Finally, the copyright term for all works still under copyright in 1998 was extended by twenty years (for a total of 95 years). So, for example, if a film was published in 1965, it was automatically renewed and is protected until 2060.
Who can register a work? Only the author or the author's transferees, or someone with their authorization, can apply for registration. Film restoration, though it requires great skill and craft, does not demonstrate sufficient originality, by itself, to claim a derivative copyright in a public domain film. However, film restoration plus additions or revisions -- for example, a re-recorded soundtrack and commentary -- may be the subject of copyright. Claiming ownership in a purely public domain work is verboten.
Copyright Notice. Until March 1, 1989, copyright notice (with certain exceptions) was required on all copies of a pre-1978 work published with the authorization of the owner. These three requirements -- notice, publication and authorization -- were the subject of many lawsuits. 
Publication. For example, a film was not considered "published" when it was displayed or "performed" in a movie theater. Publication of a film, according to attorney Stephen Fishman, occurred when "prints of the film were transferred to an independent film distributor that made several hundred copies and sent them to its branch offices (also called “exchanges”) around the world. The exchanges entered into film rental agreements with exhibitors who then showed the films to the public." The Ninth Circuit has held that films were published for copyright purposes when copies were placed in these exchanges for distribution to theater operators, a position supported by the Copyright Office and the film studios. 
Notice format. There were various rules regarding placement in the film and the notice format. But keep in mind that judges, faced with the invalidation of copyright because of a notice error are often forgiving. Courts will look to determine whether any notice is present that advises the public that there is a proprietor, and that the notice doesn't affirmatively mislead. On that basis, it's not prudent to assume that the failure to name the owner in the notice invalidates the copyright.